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 1. Introduction to DBMS, Advantages and disadvantages of DBMS, introduction to RDBMS, Codd's Rule for RDBMS, Difference between DBMS and RDBMS. Normalization. Data Models and their types (Hierarchical, Networking, Relational). Introduction to Client-Server Computing, Architecture of Client-Server Computing, Advantages of Client-Server Computing. Introduction to SQL *Plus: Introduction to SQL, Oracle Data types, Starting SQL *Plus, Data Manipulation and 
Control-I : Data Definition Language (DDL), Creating Tables, Creating a Table with data from another table, Inserting Values into a Table, Updating Column(s) of a Table, Deleting Row(s) from a Table, Dropping a Column, Querying database tables, Conditional retrieval of rows, Working with Null Values, Matching a pattern from a table, Ordering the Result of a Query, Aggregate Functions, Grouping the Result of a Query, ROLLUP Operation: Getting Sub Totals, CUBE Operation: Getting Cross Tabs, Command Summary of SQL *Plus Editor. 


2. Functions : Arithmetic Functions, Character Functions, Date Functions, General Functions; Group Functions. Introduction to VIEWs, Manipulating the Base table(s) through VIEWs, Rules of DML Statements on Join Views, Dropping a VIEW, Inline Views, Materialised Views. Querying Multiple Tables: Collating Information: Equi-Joins, Cartesian Joins, Outer Joins, Self Joins. ; Set Operator: Union, Intersect, Minus; Nested Queries. Data Manipulation and 
Control-II: Database Security and Privileges, GRANT Command, REVOKE Command, Application Privileges Management, Enhancing Performance, Sequences, Paper Maintaining Database Objects, COMMIT and ROLLBACK.


3. PL/SQL-I : Introduction to PL/SQL, The Advantage of PL/SQL, PL/SQL Block Structure, PL/SQL Architecture, Fundamentals of PL/SQL, PL/SQL Data Types, Variables and Constants, Scope and Visibility of a Variable, Assignments and Expressions, Operator Precedence, Referencing Non- PL/SQL Variables, Built-inFunctions, Conditional and Iterative Control, SQL Within PL/SQL, Writing PL/SQL Code, Composite Datatypes. 


4. PL/SQL-II: Cursor Management in PL/SQL, Cursor Manipulation, Implicit Cursor Attributes, Exception Handling in PL/SQL; Predefined Exceptions, User-Defined Exceptions. 
Advanced PL/SQL: Subprograms in PL/SQL, Advantages of Subprograms, Procedure, Functions, Actual versus Formal Parameters, Argument Modes, Stored Packages, Advantages of Packages, Dropping a Procedure, Dropping a Function, Dropping a Package, Using Stored Function in SQL Statements, Database Trigger, Types of Triggers, Dropping Triggers, Storage for Triggers.

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