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Problem Solving Through C


Programming Process: Steps in developing of a program, Data Flow Diagram, Decision Table, Algorithm development, Flowchart, Pseudo Code, Testing and Debugging. Fundamentals of C Languages: History of C, Character Set, Identifiers and Keywords, Constants, Types of C Constants, Rules for Constructing Integer, Real and character Constants, Variables, Data Types, rules for constructing variables. Operators and Expressions: C Instructions, Arithmetic operators, Relational operators, Logical operators, Assignment Operators, Type Conversion in Assignments, Hierarchy of Operations, Standard and Formatted Statements, Structure of a C program , Compilation and Execution. 


Decision Control Structure: Decision making with IF-statement, IF-Else and Nested IFElse, The else if Clause. Loop Control Structure: While and do-while, for loop and Nested for loop, Case Control Structure: Decision using switch, goto statement. Functions: Library functions and user defined functions, Global and Local variables, Function Declaration, Calling and definition of function, Methods of parameter passing to functions, recursion, Storage Classes in C. 


Arrays: Introduction, Array declaration, Accessing values in an array, Initializing values in an array, Single and Two-Dimensional Arrays, Initializing a 2-Dimensional Array, Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array, Passing array elements to a function: Call by value and call by reference, Arrays of characters, Insertion and deletion operations, Searching the elements in an array, Using matrices in arrays, Passing an Entire Array to a Function. Pointers: Pointer declaration, Address operator “&”, Indirection operator “*”, Pointer and arrays, Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays, Pointer to an Array, Passing 2-D array to a Function, Array of Pointers. Dynamic Memory Allocation: malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), free() functions. 


String Manipulation in C: Declaring and Initializing string variables, Reading and writing strings, String Handling functions(strlen(), strcpy(), strcmp(), strcat()). Structures and Unions: Declaration of structures, Structure Initialization, Accessing structure members, Arrays of structure, Nested structures, Structure with pointers, Union. Files in C: Introduction, Opening and Closing files, Basic I/O operation on files.


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Data Structures  
1. Basic Concepts and Notations, Introduction to Complexity, Data Structure and Data Structure operations. Applications of Data Structure. Basic data Structures: Arrays: Introduction, Types of Array, Memory representation, Applications and operations. Stacks and queue: Introduction, memory representation, Applications and operations 
(No. of Periods : 15) 
 2. Linked List: Operations:-traversing, searching, inserting, deleting, operations on header linked list, circular linked list, doubly linked list, memory representation, Applications, polynomial manipulation. 
( No. of Periods : 15) 

3. Trees – Definition and Basic concepts, Representation in Contiguous Storage, Binary Tree, Binary Tree Traversal, Searching, Insertion and deletion in Binary trees, Binary Search tree, AVL trees.
 (No. of Periods : 15)
4. Searching: Binary and Linear Search. Sorting: Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Selection sort, Merge Sort, Radix sort, Quick sort, S…


SyllabusBCA-2nd Year: SECTION-A 
 1. Computer Arithmetic :Floating Point Numbers, operations, normalizations and    their consequences, Errors and its types. 
 2. Iterative Methods :Bisection, False-Position, Newton - Raphson Methods,  Zeros of a polynomial using Birge – Vieta Method. 

(No. of Periods : 15)
3.Simultaneous Linear Equations : Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations Using Gauss - Elimination, Gauss-Jordan and Gauss-Seidal Methods, Concept of Pivoting.  
4.Interpolation:  Lagrange,  Newton  forward,  Newton  Backward,  Divided  Difference, Newton forward difference, Newton Backward difference, Numerical  Integration: Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3, Simpson’s 3/8, Weddle and Runga–    Kutta Methods: 2nd order & 4th order.

      (No. of Periods : 15) 

5. Measures of Central Tendency:Peparing Frequency distribution table, Arithmetic mean, Geometric mean, Harmonic mean, Median and Mode.        6. Measures  of  Dispersion,  Skewness and Kurtosis,  Range :Mean   d…



The syllabus has 15 topics to be covered in 25-hour lectures in total, with 2 lectures in each topic from 2 to 11 and one each for the topics 1 and 12 to 15.

1. Environment Concept: Introduction, the concept of biosphere – lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere; Natural resources – their need and types; Principles and scope of Ecology; concepts of the ecosystem, population, community, biotic interactions, biomes, ecological succession.

2. Atmosphere: Parts of atmosphere, components of air; pollution, pollutants, their sources, permissible limits, risks and possible control measures.

3. Hydrosphere: Types of aquatic systems; Major sources (including ground water) and uses of water, problems of the hydrosphere, fresh water shortage; pollution and pollutants of water, permissible limits, risks and possible control measures.

4. Lithosphere: Earth crust, soil – a life support system, its texture, types, components, pollution and pollutants, reasons of soil erosion and poss…