Programming Process: Steps in developing of a program, Data Flow Diagram, Decision Table, Algorithm development, Flowchart, Pseudo Code, Testing and Debugging. Fundamentals of C Languages: History of C, Character Set, Identifiers and Keywords, Constants, Types of C Constants, Rules for Constructing Integer, Real and character Constants, Variables, Data Types, rules for constructing variables. Operators and Expressions: C Instructions, Arithmetic operators, Relational operators, Logical operators, Assignment Operators, Type Conversion in Assignments, Hierarchy of Operations, Standard and Formatted Statements, Structure of a C program , Compilation and Execution.
Decision Control Structure: Decision making with IF-statement, IF-Else and Nested IFElse, The else if Clause. Loop Control Structure: While and do-while, for loop and Nested for loop, Case Control Structure: Decision using switch, goto statement. Functions: Library functions and user defined functions, Global and Local variables, Function Declaration, Calling and definition of function, Methods of parameter passing to functions, recursion, Storage Classes in C.
Arrays: Introduction, Array declaration, Accessing values in an array, Initializing values in an array, Single and Two-Dimensional Arrays, Initializing a 2-Dimensional Array, Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array, Passing array elements to a function: Call by value and call by reference, Arrays of characters, Insertion and deletion operations, Searching the elements in an array, Using matrices in arrays, Passing an Entire Array to a Function. Pointers: Pointer declaration, Address operator “&”, Indirection operator “*”, Pointer and arrays, Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays, Pointer to an Array, Passing 2-D array to a Function, Array of Pointers. Dynamic Memory Allocation: malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), free() functions.
String Manipulation in C: Declaring and Initializing string variables, Reading and writing strings, String Handling functions(strlen(), strcpy(), strcmp(), strcat()). Structures and Unions: Declaration of structures, Structure Initialization, Accessing structure members, Arrays of structure, Nested structures, Structure with pointers, Union. Files in C: Introduction, Opening and Closing files, Basic I/O operation on files.