SEMESTER – IINote:
The syllabus has 15 topics to be covered in 25-hour lectures in total, with 2 lectures in each topic from 2 to 11 and one each for the topics 1 and 12 to 15.
1. Environment Concept: Introduction, the concept of biosphere – lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere; Natural resources – their need and types; Principles and scope of Ecology; concepts of the ecosystem, population, community, biotic interactions, biomes, ecological succession.
2. Atmosphere: Parts of atmosphere, components of air; pollution, pollutants, their sources, permissible limits, risks and possible control measures.
3. Hydrosphere: Types of aquatic systems; Major sources (including ground water) and uses of water, problems of the hydrosphere, fresh water shortage; pollution and pollutants of water, permissible limits, risks and possible control measures.
4. Lithosphere: Earth crust, soil – a life support system, its texture, types, components, pollution and pollutants, reasons of soil erosion and possible control measures.
5. Forests: Concept of forests and plantations, types of vegetation and forests, factors governing vegetation, a role of trees and forests in the environment, various forestry programmes of the Govt. of India, Urban Forests, Chipko Andolan.
6. Conservation of Environment: The concepts of conservation and sustainable development, why to conserve, aims and objectives of conservation, policies of conservation; conservation of life support systems – soil, water, air, wildlife, forests.
7. Management of Solid Waste: Merits and demerits of different ways of solid waste management– open dumping, landfill, incineration, resource reduction, recycling and reuse, vermicomposting and vermiculture, organic farming.
8. Indoor Environment: Pollutants and contaminants of the in-house environment; problems of the environment linked to urban and rural lifestyles; possible adulterants of the food; uses and harms of plastics and polyethene; hazardous chemicals, solvents and cosmetics.
9. Global Environmental Issues: Global concern, a creation of UNEP; Conventions on climate change, Convention on biodiversity; Stratospheric ozone depletion, dangers associated and possible solutions.
10. Indian Laws on Environment: Indian laws pertaining to Environmental protection: Environment (Protection) Act, 1986; General information about laws relating to control of air, water and noise pollution. What to do to seek redressal.
11. Biodiversity: What is biodiversity, levels and types of biodiversity, an importance of biodiversity, causes of its loss, how to check its loss; Hotspot zones of the world and India, Biodiversity Act, 2002.
12. Noise and Microbial Pollution: Pollution due to noise and microbes and their effects.